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Research Links


The National Institutes of Health: PACHER P, BÁTKAI S, KUNOS G. The Endocannabinoid System as an Emerging Target of Pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological reviews. 2006;58(3):389-462. doi:10.1124/pr.58.3.2.

The World Health Organization: “CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Pre-Review Report Agenda Item 5.2 Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, Thirty-ninth Meeting, Geneva, 6-10 November 2017.

The National Institutes of Health’s US National Library of Medicine: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/1439.html

International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines: Clinical Studies and Case Reports https://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/study.php

Journal of the American Medical Association

Association of Cannabis with Cognitive Functioning in Adolescents and Young Adults A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2678214?redirect=true

www.marijuanadoctors.com

Pennsylvania Medical Marijuana - https://www.marijuanadoctors.com/medical-marijuana/PA/pennsylvania

Cannabidiol (CBD) - https://www.marijuanadoctors.com/blog/medical-marijuana/what-is-cannabidiol


Other Resources

An Overview of CBD Hemp Oil – Manufacture, Benefits, Uses & Much More! - https://www.consumerhealthdigest.com/cbd-hemp-center/cbd-hemp-oil-review.html

CBD In the Brain: The Neurological Effects of CBD Oil - https://ministryofhemp.com/blog/cbd-in-the-brain/

Only one-third of marijuana extracts accurately labeled, researchers say - http://www.cnn.com/2017/11/07/health/marijuana-cbd-buy-online-study/index.html

Society of Cannabis Clinicians - http://cannabisclinicians.org/

THC is a Double-Edged Sword for Stress - https://www.worldhealth.net/news/low-dose-thc-stress-increase-anxiety/

The Truth About Hemp and Your Health - http://www.onegreenplanet.org/natural-health/the-truth-about-hemp-and-your-health/

US Patent on “Cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants” - https://www.google.com/patents/US6630507


CBD References:

  1. For information on the safety of cannabidiol:
  • o Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent. Current Drug Safety, 6(4), 237-249. doi:10.2174/157488611798280924.
  • o Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. (2017). An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 2(1), 139-154. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034
  • o Martin-Santos, R., Crippa, J. A., Batalla, A., Bhattacharyya, S., et al. (2012). Acute Effects of a Single, Oral dose of d9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) Administration in Healthy Volunteers. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 4966-4979. doi:10.2174/138161212802884780
  1. For information on cannabidiol and the treatment of pain:
  • o Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. (A Report of the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine.) The National Academies Press, 2017.
  • o Britch, S., Wiley, J., Yu, Z., Clowers, B., & Craft, R. (2017). Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Drug Alcohol Depend, 175:187-197. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.046
  • o Fine, PG, and M J Rosenfeld. “Cannabinoids for Neuropathic Pain.” Current Pain and Headache Reports, vol. 18, no. 10, ser. 451, Oct. 2014. 451, doi:10.1007/s11916-014-0451-2.
  • o Iskedjian, Michael, et al. “Meta-Analysis of Cannabis Based Treatments for Neuropathic and Multiple Sclerosis-Related Pain.” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 23, no. 1, 2006, pp. 17–24., doi:10.1185/030079906x158066.
  • o Johnson, J R, et al. “Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients with Intractable Cancer-Related Pain.” Journal of Pain Symptom Management, vol. 39, no. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 167–179., doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.06.008.
  • o McDonough, Patrick, et al. “Neuropathic Orofacial Pain: Cannabinoids as a Therapeutic Avenue.” The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, vol. 55, 2014, pp. 72–78., doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.08.007.
  • o Nielsen, Suzanne, et al. “The Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Treating Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review of Reviews.” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 18, no. 2, 2018, doi:10.1007/s11910- 018-0814-x.
  • o Nurmikko, Turo J., et al. “Sativex Successfully Treats Neuropathic Pain Characterised by Allodynia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Pain, vol. 133, no. 1, 2007, pp. 210–220., doi:10.1016/j.pain.2007.08.028.
  • o Rog, D, et al. “Oromucosal Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol/Cannabidiol for Neuropathic Pain Associated with Multiple Sclerosis: An Uncontrolled, Open-Label, 2-Year Extension Trial.” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 9, 2007, pp. 2068– 2079., doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.09.013.
  • o Russo, Ethan B., et al. “Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex®, a Cannabis-Based Medicine.” ChemInform, vol. 38, no. 47, 2007, doi:10.1002/chin.200747254.
  • o Russo, Ethan. “Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain.” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 4, 2008, pp. 245–259., doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928.
  • o “Illuminating Results of CBD Patient Survey.” Project CBD: Medical Marijuana & Cannabinoid Science.
  1. For information on cannabidiol and the treatment of anxiety:
  • o Bergamaschi, M, et al. “Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naive Social Phobia Patients.” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 36, 2011, doi:10.1038/npp.2011.6.
  • o Blessing, E, et al. “Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders.” Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. 2015, doi:12. 10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1.
  • o Campos, Alline C., et al. “Cannabidiol, Neuroprotection and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Pharmacological Research, vol. 112, 2016, pp. 119–127., doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2016.01.033.
  • o Crippa, Jos. Alexandre S, et al. “Neural Basis of Anxiolytic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Report.” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 1, 2010, pp. 121–130., doi:10.1177/0269881110379283.
  • o Soares, Vanessa P., and Alline C. Campos. “Evidences for the Anti-Panic Actions of Cannabidiol.” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 15, no. 2, 2017, pp. 291–299., doi:10.2174/1570159x14666160509123955.
  1. Armentano, P. (2012, September). CBD: Safe at High Doses. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.projectcbd.org/medicine/cbd-safe-high-doses Martin-Santos, R., Crippa, J. A., Batalla, A., Bhattacharyya, S., et al. (2012). Acute Effects of a Single, Oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) Administration in Healthy Volunteers. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 4966-4979. doi:10.2174/138161212802884780
  2. Vaidya, V., Partha, G., & Karmakar, M. (2012). Gender Differences in Utilization of Preventive Care Services in the United States. Journal of Women’s Health, 21(2), 140-145. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.2876
  3. Alwhaibi, M., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2016). Sex Differences in the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,2016, 1-8. doi:10.1155/2016/2067095
  4. Carpenter, G., & Patil, M. (2017). Gender Differences in Pain. Oxford Medicine Online. doi:10.1093/med/9780190217518.003.0005
  5. Mclean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research,45(8), 1027-1035. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.03.006
  6. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: Results of a follow-up national survey. (1999). Complementary Therapies in Medicine,7(3), 191-192. doi:10.1016/s0965-2299(99)80132-0

10. Patel, K. V., Guralnik, J. M., Dansie, E. J., & Turk, D. C. (2013). Prevalence and impact of pain among older adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study. Pain, 154(12), 2649-2657. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2013.07.029

11. Neikrug, A. B., & Ancoli-Israel, S. (2010). Sleep Disorders in the Older Adult – A Mini-Review. Gerontology, 56(2), 181-189. doi:10.1159/000236900

12. Russo, E. B. (2016). Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 1(1), 154-165. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0009

13. For information on THC, CBD, and pain:

  • o Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. (A Report of the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine.) The National Academies Press, 2017.
  • o Lötsch, J., et al. “Current Evidence of Cannabinoid-Based Analgesia Obtained in Preclinical and Human Experimental Settings.” European Journal of Pain, vol. 22, no. 3, 2017, pp. 471–484., doi:10.1002/ejp.1148.
  • o Johnson, Jeremy R., et al. “An Open-Label Extension Study to Investigate the Long-Term Safety and Tolerability of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray and Oromucosal THC Spray in Patients With Terminal Cancer-Related Pain Refractory to Strong Opioid Analgesics.” Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 46, no. 2, 2013, pp. 207–218., doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.07.014.
  • o Johnson, J R, et al. “Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients with Intractable Cancer-Related Pain.” Journal of Pain Symptom Management, vol. 39, no. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 167–179., doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.06.008.

14. For information on CBD, THC, and cancer:

  • o Adinolfi, Barbara, et al. “Anticancer Activity of Anandamide in Human Cutaneous Melanoma Cells.” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 718, no. 1-3, 2013, pp. 154–159., doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.08.039.
  • o Anderson, Susan P., et al. “Impact of Medical Cannabis on Patient-Reported Symptoms for Patients with Cancer Enrolled in Minnesota’s Medical Cannabis Program.” Journal of Oncology Practice, 2019, doi:10.1200/jop.18.00562.
  • o Aviello, Gabriella, et al. “Chemopreventive Effect of the Non-Psychotropic Phytocannabinoid Cannabidiol on Experimental Colon Cancer.” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 90, no. 8, 2012, pp. 925–934., doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0856-x.
  • o Bifulco, M., et al. “Endocannabinoids in Endocrine and Related Tumours.” Endocrine Related Cancer, vol. 15, no. 2, 2008, pp. 391–408., doi:10.1677/erc-07-0258.
  • o Blasco-Benito, Sandra, et al. “Appraising the ‘Entourage Effect’: Antitumor Action of a Pure Cannabinoid versus a Botanical Drug Preparation in Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 157, 2018, pp. 285–293., doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2018.06.025
  • o Brown, K J, et al. “Cannabidiol, a Novel Inverse Agonist for GPR12.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications., vol. 4, no. 493, ser. 1, 4 Nov. 2017, pp. 451–454. 1, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.09.001.
  • o Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. (A Report of the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine.) The National Academies Press, 2017.
  • o Dall’ Stella, Paula B., et al. “Case Report: Clinical Outcome and Image Response of Two Patients with Secondary High-Grade Glioma Treated With Chemoradiation, PCV, and Cannabidiol.” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 8, 2019, doi:10.3389/fonc.2018.00643.
  • o Deng, L., et al. “Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 360, no. 1, 2016, pp. 215–224., doi:10.1124/jpet.116.236968.
  • o Fisher, T, et al. “In Vitro and in Vivo Efficacy of Non-Psychoactive Cannabidiol in Neuroblastoma.” Current Oncology (Toronto, Ont.), Multimed Inc., Mar. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791143/.
  • o Guzman, M, et al. “A Pilot Clinical Study of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme.” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 95, 17 July 2006, pp. 197–203.
  • o Johnson, J R, et al. “Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients with Intractable Cancer-Related Pain.” Journal of Pain Symptom Management, vol. 39, no. 2, Feb. 2010, pp. 167–179., doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.06.008.
  • o Ligresti, A. “Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 318, no. 3, 2006, pp. 1375–1387., doi:10.1124/jpet.106.105247.
  • o Marcu, J. P., et al. “Cannabidiol Enhances the Inhibitory Effects of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 1, 2010, pp. 180–189., doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-09-0407.
  • o Massi, Paola, et al. “Antitumor Effects of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoid, on Human Glioma Cell Lines.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 308, no. 3, 2003, pp. 838–845., doi:10.1124/jpet.103.061002.
  • o Massi, Paola, et al. “Cannabidiol as Potential Anticancer Drug.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Blackwell Science Inc, Feb. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3579246/.
  • o McAllister, Sean D., et al. “Cannabidiol as a Novel Inhibitor of Id-1 Gene Expression in Aggressive Breast Cancer Cells.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 6, no. 11, 2007, pp. 2921–2927., doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-07-0371.
  • o McAllister, Sean D., et al. “Pathways Mediating the Effects of Cannabidiol on the Reduction of Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Metastasis.” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 129, no. 1, 2010, pp. 37–47., doi:10.1007/s10549-010-1177-4.
  • o McKallip, R. J. “Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells: A Novel Role of Cannabidiol in the Regulation of p22phox and Nox4 Expression.” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 70, no. 3, 2006, pp. 897–908., doi:10.1124/mol.106.023937.
  • o Nabissi, Massimo, et al. “Triggering of the TRPV2 Channel by Cannabidiol Sensitizes Glioblastoma Cells to Cytotoxic Chemotherapeutic Agents.” Carcinogenesis, vol. 34, no. 1, 2012, pp. 48–57., doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs328.
  • o Pacher, Pál. “Towards the Use of Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids for Prostate Cancer.” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 168, no. 1, 2012, pp. 76–78., doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02121.x.
  • o Pokrywka, M, et al. “Cannabinoids - a New Weapon against Cancer?” Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online), vol. 70, 29 Dec. 2016, pp. 1309–1320., doi:10.5604/17322693.1227443.
  • o Ramer, Robert, et al. “COX-2 and PPAR-g Confer Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer Cells.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 1, 2012, pp. 69–82., doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-12-0335.
  • o Ramer, Robert, and Burkhard, Hinz. “Antitumorigenic Targets of Cannabinoids – Current Status and Implications.” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 20, no. 10, 2016, pp. 1219–1235., doi:10.1080/14728222.2016.1177512.
  • o Ramer, Robert, et al. “Cannabidiol Inhibits Cancer Cell Invasion via Upregulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1.” Biochemical Pharmacology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Apr. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218/.
  • o Ramer, Robert, et al. “Cannabidiol Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Metastasis via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1.” The FASEB Journal, vol. 26, no. 4, 2012, pp. 1535–1548., doi:10.1096/fj.11-198184.
  • o Rocha, Francisco Carlos Machado, et al. “Systematic Review of the Literature on Clinical and Experimental Trials on the Antitumor Effects of Cannabinoids in Gliomas.” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 116, no. 1, 2013, pp. 11–24., doi:10.1007/s11060-013-1277-1.
  • o Russo, Ethan. “Cannabinoids in the Management of Difficult to Treat Pain.” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 4, 2008, pp. 245–259., doi:10.2147/tcrm.s1928.
  • o Russo, Ethan B., et al. “Cannabis, Pain, and Sleep: Lessons from Therapeutic Clinical Trials of Sativex®, a Cannabis-Based Medicine.” ChemInform, vol. 38, no. 47, 2007, doi:10.1002/chin.200747254.
  • o Sharma, Manju, et al. “In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.” Pharmacology & Pharmacy, vol. 05, no. 08, 2014, pp. 806–820., doi:10.4236/pp.2014.58091.
  • o Shrivastava, A., et al. “Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-Talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy.” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 7, 2011, pp. 1161–1172., doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-10-1100.
  • o Solinas, M, et al. “Cannabidiol Inhibits Angiogenesis by Multiple Mechanisms.” British Journal of Pharmacology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Nov. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3504989/.
  • o Solinas, Marta, et al. “Cannabidiol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid Compound, Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion in U87-MG and T98G Glioma Cells through a Multitarget Effect.” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076918.
  • o Takeda, Shuso, et al. “Cannabidiolic Acid, a Major Cannabinoid in Fiber-Type Cannabis, Is an Inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Migration.” Toxicology Letters, vol. 214, no. 3, 2012, pp. 314–319., doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.08.029.
  • o Vaccani, Angelo, et al. “Cannabidiol Inhibits Human Glioma Cell Migration through a Cannabinoid Receptor-Independent Mechanism.” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 144, no. 8, 2005, pp. 1032–1036., doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706134.